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Telephone, B Continued on Page 3 Scroll to previous page. That he knew the French models is evident from his skilful conveyance of the bear episode in Ider to his own pages, where the Cid encoun- ters the beast as a lion.

But the language shows no hint of French influence, and both thought and expression are profoundly national.

The poet's name is irrecover- able, but the internal evidence points strongly to the conclusion that he came from the neighbourhood of Medina Cell.

Against this is the topographical minuteness with which the poet reports the sallies of the Cid in the districts of Castej6n and Alcocer ; his marked ignorance of the country round Zaragoza and Valencia, his detailed description of the central episode — the outrage upon the Cid's daughters in the wood of Corpes, near Berlanga ; and the important fact that the four chief itineraries in the Poema are charged with minutiae from Molina to San Esteban de Gormaz, while they grow vague and more confused as they extend towards Burgos and Valencia.

PiHfU Perhaps the greatest testimony to the early poet's worth is to be found in this : that hTs conceplibri of his hero has outlived the true historic Cid, and has forced the child of his imagination upon the acceptance of mankind.

The composi- tion which bears this clumsy and inappropriate title is better named the Cantar de Rodrigo, and consists of 1 1 25 lines, preceded by a scrap of rugged prose.

Not till after digressions into other episodes, and irrelevant stories of Miro and Bernardo, Bishops of Palencia, pro- bably fellow-townsmen of the compiler, does the Cid appear.

He is no longer, as in the Poema, a popular hero, idealised from historic report ; he is a purely ima- ginary figure, incrusted with a mass of fables accumulated in course of time.

At the age of twelve he slays Gomez G6rmaz an almost impossible style, compounded of a patronymic and the name of a castle belonging to the Cid , is claimed by the dead man's daughter, weds her, vanquishes the Moors, and leads his King's — Fernando's — troops to the gates of Paris, defeating the Count of Savoy upon the road.

One legend is heaped upon another, and the poem, the end of which is lost, breaks off with the Pope's request for a year's truce, which Fernando, acting as ever upon the Cid's advice, mag- nanimously extends for twelve years.

It is hard to say whether the Cantar de Rodrigo as we have it is the production of a single composer, or whether it is a patchwork by dijfferent hands, arranged from earlier poems, and eked out by prose stories and by oral tradi- tions.

The versification is that of the simple sixteen- syllabled line, each hemistich of which forms a typical romance line. Much of the obscurity of language, which has been mistaken for archaism, is simply due to the defects of the manuscript ; and the evidence goes to show that the RodrigOy put together in the last decade of the twelfth century or the first of the thirteenth, was retouched in the fourteenth by Spanish juglares humili- ated by the recent French invasions.

The nameless Spanish arranger of the thirteenth century probably a native of Arag6n gives the story of Apollonius' adventures with force and clearness, anticipating in the character of Tarsiana the type of Preciosa, the heroine of Cervantes' Gitanilla and of Weber's opera.

Unfortunately the closing tags of moralisings on the vanity of life destroy the effect which the writer has produced by his free translation.

His text is suffused with Provengalisms, and his mono- rhymed quatrains of fourteen syllables are evidence of French or Provencal origin.

This metrical novelty, extending over more than six hundred stanzas, is pro- perly regarded by the author as his chief distinction, and he implores God and the Virgin to guide him in the exercise of the new mastery nueva maestrid.

It is fair to add that his experiment has the interest of novelty, that it succeeded beyond measure in its time, and that its monotonous vogue endured for some two hundred years.

To the same period belongs the Vida de Santa Maria jEgipciaquay the earliest Castilian example of verses of nine syllables.

The Spanish version follows the French lead with almost pedantic exactitude ; but the metre, new and well suited to the common ear, is handled with an easy grace re- markable in a first effort.

As happens with other works of this time, the title of the short Libre dels Tres Reyes dorient is misleading. Like its predecessor, this legend is given in nine-syllabled verse, and is undoubtedly borrowed from a French or Provengal source not yet discovered, h In the Disputa del Alma y el Cuerpo Argument be- 1 twixt Body and Soul , a subject which passes into!

Thus it is sought to reproduce the music of the model, an Anglo-Norman poem, written in rhymed couplets of six syllables, and wrongly attributed to Walter Map.

Composed in verses of nine syllables, the poem deals with the meeting of two lovers, their colloquy, interchanges, and separation.

Both pieces, discovered within the last seventeen years by M. Morel-Fatio, are the productions of a single mind. Whoever the author may have been — and the internal evidence tends to show that he was a clerk familiar with French, Provengal, Italian, or Portuguese exemplars — he shines by virtue of qualities which are akin to genius.

Here was a poet who recognised that in literature — the least moral of the arts — the end justifies the means ; hence he transformed the material which he borrowed, made it his own possession, and conveyed into Castile a new method adapted to her needs.

But time and language were not yet ripe, and the Spanish lyric flourished solely in Galicia : it was not to be trans- planted at a first attempt.

A few details are known of him. He was certainly a deacon in , and his name occurs in documents between and His copiousness runs to some thirteen thousand lines, including, besides the works already named, the Sacrificio de la Misa Sacrifice of the Mass , the Martirio de San Lorenzo Martyrdom of St.

In most editions of Berceo there is appended to his verses a poem in his praise, attributed to an unknown writer of the fourteenth century.

This poem is, in fact, conjectured to be an invention of TomAs Antonio Sdnchez, the earliest editor of Berceo's complete works The chances are that Berceo and his writings had passed out of remembrance within two hundred years of his death, and he was evidently unknown to Santillana in the fifteenth century.

He sings in the vernacular, he declares, being too unlearned in the Latin ; but he has his little pretensions.

Berceo uses the rhythm with success, and if his results are not splendid, it was not because he lacked perseverance.

On the contrary, his industry was only too formidable. Beside Dante's achievement, as Puymaigre notes, the paraphrases of Berceo in the Sacrificio de la Misa stanzas seem thin and pale ; but the comparison is unfair to the earlier Castiljian singer, who died in his obscure hamlet without the advantage of Dante's splendid BERCEO 59 r literary tradition.

Berceo is hampered by his lack of imagination, by the poverty of his conditions, by the absence of models, by the narrow circle of his sub- jects, and by the pious scruples which hindered him from arabesquing the original design.

Yet he pos- sesses the gifts of simplicity and of unction, and amid his long digressions into prosy theological commonplace there are flashes of m ystic insp iration unmatched by any other poet of his country and his time.

Even when his versification, clear but hard, is at its worst, he accomplishes the end which he desires by popular- ising the pious legends which were dear to him.

He was not — never could have been — a great poet. But in his own way he was, if not an inventor, the chief of a school, and the necessary predecessor of such devout authors as Luis de Leon and St.

The rocks where he reposed, in meditation still. The solitary shades through which he roved at will: His presence all that place with sanctity did fill!

Certain it is that Gautier's source, the Soissons manu- script, was known to Alfonso the Learned, who men- tions it in the sixty-first of his Galician songs as " a book full of miracles " : — " En Seixons.

But since Alfonso, a middle-aged man when Berceo died, knew the Soissons collection, it seems possible that Berceo also handled it.

A close examination of his text con- verts the bare possibility into something approaching certainty.

Of Berceo's twenty-five Marian legends, eighteen are given by Gautier de Coinci, whose total reaches fifty-five.

This is not by itself final, for both writers might have selected them from a common source. Yet there are convincing proofs of imitation in the coincidences of thought and expression which are apparent in Gautier and Berceo.

These are too nume- rous to be accidental ; and still more weight must be given to the fact that in several cases where Gautier BERCEO 6 1 invents a detail of his own wit, Berceo reproduces it.

Taken in conjunction with his known habit of strict adherence to his text, it follows that Berceo took Gautier for his guide. He did what all the world was doing in borrowing from the French, and in the Virgin's Lament he has the candour to confess the northern supremacy.

Still, it would be wrong to think that Berceo con- tents himself with mere servile reproduction, or that he trespasses in the manner of a vulgar plagiary.

Seven of his legends he seeks elsewhere than in Gautier, and he takes it upon himself to condense his prede- cessor's diffuse narration.

Thus, where Gautier needs lines to tell the legend of St. Ildefonsus, or to give the miracle of Theophilus, Berceo confines him- self to and to lines.

Gautier will spare you no detail ; he will have you know the why, the when, the how, the paltriest circumstance of his pious story.

Beside him Berceo shines by his power of selection, by his finer instinct for the essential, by his relative sobriety of tone, by his realistic eye, by his variety of resource in pure Castilian expression, by his richer melody, and by the fleeter movement of his action.

In a word, with all his imperfections, Berceo approves him- self the sounder craftsman of. This argues a considerable lyrical gift, and the pity is that the most of Berceo's editors should have been at such pains to hide it from the reader.

Traces of the Leonese dialect negative the ascription to Berceo, and the Juan Lorenzo Segura de Astorga mentioned in the last verses is a mere copyist.

But the value of both these compositions is slight. So much for verse. Castilian prose develops on paral- lel lines with it.

A very early specimen is the didactic treatise called the Diez Mandamientos, written by a Navar- rese monk, at the beginning of the thirteenth century, for the use of confessors.

Somewhat later follow the Anales ToledanoSy in two separate parts the third is much more recent , composed between the years and Under- taken at the bidding of St.

This is a Castilian version of a code of so-called Gothic laws, sub- stantially Roman in origin, given by St. Ferdinand to the Spaniards settled in C6rdoba and other southern cities after the reconquest; but though of ex- treme value to the philologer, its literary interest is too slight to detain us here.

There is good reason for thinking that they are not by the author of that poem ; and, in truth, they are mere transla- tions. Further examples of progressive prose are found in the Libro de los doce SabioSf which deals with the political education of princes, and may have been drawn up by the direction of St.

But the authorship and date of these compilations are little better than conjectural. Mariana, the greatest of Spanish historians, condenses the vulgar yerdicT in a Tacitean phrase : Dum coelum considerat terra amissit A mountain of libellous myth has overlaid Alfonso's fame.

He would have made it differently. Political disaster never caused his intellectual activity to slacken. Like Bacon, he took all knowledge for his province, and in every department he shone pre-eminent.

Astronomy, music, philosophy, canon and civil law, history, poetry, the study of lan- guages : he forced his people upon these untrodden roads.

Both the Tobias Alfonsis and the colossal Libros del Saber cU Astronontia Books on the Science of Astronomy are packed with minute corrections of Ptolemy, in whose system the learned King seems to have suspected an error ; but their present interest lies in the historic fact, that with their compilation Castilian makes its first great stride in the direction of exactitude and clearness.

This miraculous activity astounded contemporaries, and posterity has multiplied the wonder by attributing well-nigh every possible anonymous work to the man whose real activity is a marvel.

It has been ' So called because it embraced the seren subjects of learning : the trwio grammar, logic, and rhetoric , and the quadrivio music, astrology, physics, and metaphysics.

Not one of these can be brought home to him, and some belong to a later time. Great authorities accept as authen- tic the Libro de Querellas Book of Plaints , which is represented by two fine stanzas addressed to Diego Sarmiento, "brother and friend and vassal leal" of "him whose foot was kissed by kings, him from whom queens sought alms and grace," One is sorry to lose them, but they must be rejected.

This to some extent clears the ground : but not altogether. Setting aside minor legal and philosophic treatises which Alfonso may have supervised, it remains to speak of more important matters.

A great achieve- ment is the code called, from the number of its divisions, the Stete Partidas Seven Parts. This name does not appear to have been attached to the code till a hundred years after its compilation ; but it may be worth ob- serving that the notion is implied in the name of the Septenarioy and that Alfonso, regarding the number seven as something of mysterious potency, exhausts himself in citing precedents — the seven days of the week, seven metals, seven arts, seven years that Jacob sei-ved, seven lean years in Egypt, the seven-branched candlestick, seven sacraments, and so on.

The trait is characteristic of the time. It would be a grave mis- take to suppose that the Siete Partidas in any way resembles a modern book of statutes, couched in the technical jargon of the law.

In history, too, Alfonso sought distinction ; and he found it. The latter, ranging from the Creation to Apo- stolic times, glances at such secular events as the Babylonian Empire and the fall of Troy ; the former extends from the peopling of Europe by the sons of Japhet to the death of St.

Rodrigo Jimenez de Rada and Lucas de Tuy are the direct authorities, and their testimonies are completed by elaborate refer- ences that stretch from Pliny to the cantares de gesta.

Elsewhere a strange ignorance of Arabs and their history is shown by the compiler's inclusion of such fables as Muhammad's crusade in C6rdoba.

The inevitable conclusion is that the Esto- riasy like the Siete ParttdaSy are compilations by several hands ; and the idea is supported by the fact that the prologue to the Estoria de Espanna is scarcely more than a translation of Jimenez de Rada's preface.

Late traditions give the names of Alfonso's colla- borators in one or the other History as Egidio de Zamora, J of re de Loaysa, Martfn de C6rdoba, Suero Perez, Bishop of Zamora, and Garci Ferndndez de Toledo ; and even though these attributions be as seems likely a trifle fantastical, they at least indicate a long-standing disbelief in the unity of authorship.

It is proved that Alfonso gathered from C6rdoba, Seville, Toledo, and Paris somejfiftyjeacperts to translate Ptolemy's i Quadri partitum and other astronomic treatises; it is natural that he should organise a similar coiumittee to put together the lirstms!

Better than most of his contemporaries, he knew the value of combination. Between teaching, spending time with my husband and two daughters, and blogging about ideas for the music room, life keeps me busy…but I love every minute!

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Lesson ideas , Listening lessons No Comments. Share on pinterest. Share on facebook. Bat Guilds Analysis To compare bat guilds, I first assigned each bat to a guild using the 10 categories proposed by Kalko et al.

Based on the original guild concept of Root , each guild is composed of species that forage in similar habitats, in similar ways, for similar foods.

Kalko et al. They defined habitat with respect to the proximity of a bat to obstacles or clutter. Bats foraging modes were classified as "gleaning" for species that take food from a surface, or "aerial" for those that capture it in the air.

Bonaccorso added a vertical stratification component to the classification of bat guilds. Food habit classification 37 refers to the main food consumed by a species.

I obtained diet data from the literature Fleming et al. To compare the composition and structure of bat communities I constructed two niche matrices based on the feeding guilds as used by Kalko et al.

The first niche matrix described species richness by cell occupancy, whereas the second niche matrix described species identity and ecological characteristics abundance and strata use.

Body mass values were obtained from bats I caught and from the literature Fleming et al. Body size categories follow Kalko et al.

Other studies LaVal and Fitch , Smith and Genoways , Willig have used forearm length as a measure of size because it is more commonly and accurately recorded than body mass.

However, LaVal and Fitch and Lim and Engstrom have expressed reservations about the use of forearm length. Body mass represents better the ecological impact per individual in terms of resource consumption Lim and Engstrom To describe species abundance patterns within guilds, I assigned bats to an abundance category based on the first capture of their members recaptures excluded.

Because some species were not captured frequently enough to allow a statistical analysis, I used the percentage of captures within species by strata to describe species strata use.

Bats were arbitrarily classified into three categories of forest strata use based on the number of total captures in canopy-level nets, expressed as percentage of total captures.

The "both strata" category may include understory bats that frequently use the canopy or canopy bats that frequently use the understory.

Results Species and Taxonomic Richness Mist nets were open for mist net hours mnh during nights lowlands mnh during nights, cloud forest mnh during nights.

Acoustic monitoring was done for 72 hrs during 12 nights at each site MUller With the combined methods of mist-netting and acoustic inventory, and the inclusion of species from previous inventories in the cloud forest of Fortuna Adames , Olmos , I recorded at the regional scale a total of 73 species, 43 genera, and seven families Table , Appendix B.

Phyllostomidae dominated both lowland forest 30 of 51 spp. The family Vespertilionidae followed in species richness at both lowland 7 spp. Emballonuridae was rich in species in the lowlands 7 spp.

The other families were poor in representation in both forests. Within the Phyllostomidae family, the subfamily Stenodermatinae dominated at both lowland forest 12 spp.

Species and taxonomic richness, and taxonomic ratios of bats recorded in the lowland forest of Batipa and in the cloud forest of Fortuna partitioned by spatial scale and method.

For bats recorded with mist nets, species accumulation curves showed that the cloud forest accumulated species faster than the lowland forest during the first 20 netting nights.

Thereafter, more species were captured in the lowlands until both curves reached similar species richness Figure Rarefaction analysis showed that close to captures would have been required to accumulate 34 and 33 species in the lowland forest and in the cloud forest, respectively.

My actual sampling accumulated 35 species with bats and 34 species with bats in the lowland forest and in the cloud forest, respectively.

Both bat communities were numerically dominated by a few abundant and many less abundant species Table , Figures , , Appendix B.

The six most abundant 40 species in the lowland forest Artibeus jamaicensis, C. The six most abundant species A.

The superabundant A. The number of understory and canopy species was similar in both forests Table For the lowlands, rarefaction analysis showed that close to captures would have been required to accumulate 30 and 31 species in the understory and in the canopy, respectively.

My actual sampling accumulated 31 species with bats and 33 species with bats in the understory and in the canopy, respectively.

For the cloud forest, rarefaction analysis showed that close to bats would have been required to accumulate 26 and 23 species in the understory and in canopy, respectively.

My actual sampling accumulated 28 species with bats and 29 species with bats in the understory and in the canopy, respectively.

Abundance categories for bat communities of lowland forest Batipa and cloud forest Fortuna. Abundance range and number of species Category Lowland forest Species Cloud forest Species Rare 10 14 Uncommon 15 7 Common 5 6 Abundant 4 6 Superabundant 1 1 Total 35 34 41 Table Species richness of bats in lowland forest and cloud forest partitioned by species category and forest strata A.

Species categories: rare species are those represented by - 5 individuals, all other species are those represented by - 6 individuals, and restricted species are those species captured only in one strata level, understory or canopy.

Individual abundances of bat species in these two forests partitioned by forest strata B. I captured significantly more individuals in the canopy than in the understory in both forests G"'s - I found differences in the relative species abundance distribution between forests.

Species abundance distribution showed a high frequency of uncommon species in the 42 lowland forest and rare species in the cloud forest Table , Figure Species rank abundance distribution in the lowland forest showed the typical log normal distribution with one or two dominant species, whereas in the cloud forest several species were prominent Figure In the lowland forest, the rank-abundance patterns of understory and canopy samples are very similar to each other and to the total sample Figure However, they differ in the sequence of most abundant species.

Understory bats are dominated in decreasing order by A. In the cloud forest, the rank-abundance patterns of understory and canopy samples show similar distribution Figure Between cloud forest strata there is a difference in the sequence of most abundant species.

Understory species are represented in decreasing order by S. However, lowland forest showed lower species diversity than cloud forest using both two diversity indices H', NMS , with significant differences for Shannon's Index H': 2.

The cloud forest showed a more equal abundance distribution among species than the lowland forest E: 0.

Measures of community diversity and evenness for total and by strata bat community in lowland forest and cloud forest for bats captured with mist nets.

Combining sampling methods, lowlands and cloud forest have 31 species in common Appendix B. Measures of community similarity for total and by strata bat community in a lowland forest and cloud forest based on data from combined mist netting and acoustic , mist netting, and acoustic monitoring methods.

The lowland bats had a more diverse understory than the canopy, but similar evenness Table and higher taxonomic than functional similarity between strata Table Species richness within insectivore and piscivore bat families in a lowland forest and cloud forest in Panam6.

Species richness of the bat family Phyllostomidae PHY and its subfamilies in a lowland forest and cloud forest in Panamd. Subfamilies are the insect-omnivorouscarnivorous Phyllostominae Phy , nectarivore Glossophaginae Glo , and frugivore Carollinae Ca and Stenodermatinae Ste.

Bat species accumulation curves from two forests in Panamd at different elevations during July Dec Curves show total number of species captured partitioned by lowland forest Batipa: 35 spp.

Arrows divide netting nights in year periods. Distribution of the relative species abundance for Panamanian bats in a cloud forest Fortuna and a lowland forest Batipa.

Relative abundance distributions are plotted by doubling classes of abundance log2 , following the method of Preston Dominance-diversity curves for bat species in two Panamanian forests at different elevations.

Log10 of species abundance partitioning by lowland forest Batipa: 35 species and cloud forest Fortuna: 34 species bat species rank.

Sample size refers to total bat abundance. Dominance-diversity curves for the bat community in lowland forest Batipa.

Log10 of species abundance partitioned by total 35 species , canopy 33 species , and understory 29 species bat species rank. Sample size refers to bat abundance for total community, canopy, and understory.

Dominance-diversity curves for the bat community in a cloud forest Fortuna. Log10 of species abundance partitioned by total 34 species , canopy 29 species , and understory 28 species bat species rank.

Forest strata in the cloud forest were more taxonomically C,: 0. Spatial and Temporal Bat Diversity Annual and seasonal temporal patterns of bat species richness and abundance were different between and within sites.

When partitioned among years the lowland and cloud forest showed similar trends in species richness and "single species", but not with respect for abundance and "unique species" Tables , Corrected values for annual mist netting effort.

Single species were species represented by one individual in a year, and unique species were species not captured in any other year.

Values for unique species were not corrected. Numbers in parentheses represent raw values. Monthly values of species richness, abundance, and rainfall showed high variation by year at both forests Figures , The partitioning among seasons showed differences in species richness and abundance patterns between forests or strata.

Also, I found significant differences Table Corrected values for annual mist netting effort- of bat abundance and species richness partitioned by year for the cloud forest.

Single species were species represented by one individual in a year, and unique species were species not captures in any other year.

Temporal variation in the community of lowland bats from Batipa. Each monthly point represents a 3-year mean with high and low values, except for June bat data which is a 2-year mean.

Variables are species richness A , individual abundance B , and rainfall C. Species richness and individual abundance are measured as monthly species and bats captured by net hour respectively.

Temporal variation in the community of cloud forest bats from Fortuna. Each monthly point represents a 3-year mean, except for June bat data which is a 2-year mean.

Variables are for total, understory, and canopy species richness A and individual abundance B measured as monthly species and bats captured by net hour, respectively.

Late Rainy 1. Variables are for total, understory, and canopy species richness A and individual abundance B measured as monthly species and bats captured by net hour respectively.

A Dry 0. Two of the three missing guilds in the cloud forest, the 'highly cluttered space gleaning omnivore' and the 'highly cluttered space gleaning carnivore', are represented in the lowlands by members of the subfamily Phyllostominae with 3 and 1 species, respectively.

The third missing guild is the lowland 'highly cluttered space gleaning piscivore', represented by the family Noctilionidae 1 sp.

Tables , , Appendix B. The frugivore guild was dominant in number of species at both lowland 15 spp. Next was the gleaning insectivore with more species in the lowlands 7 spp.

The other guilds had low species richness at both forests Tables , The omnivore, carnivore, and piscivore guilds were only recorded in the lowlands see above.

Members of the family Phyllostomidae Carolliinae and Stenodermatinae comprise the guild of frugivore at both forests, whereas the background aerial insectivore consists of Vespertilionidae, Emballonuridae, and Mormoopidae at both forests with the addition of Noctilionidae and Thyropteridae in the lowlands and the cloud forest, respectively.

In both forests, the family Phyllostomidae comprises the members of the gleaning insectivores Phyllostominae as well as in the nectarivores Glossophaginae and Phyllostominae.

The uncluttered aerial insectivores were members of the families Molossidae and Emballonundae in the lowlands, but Molossidae only in the cloud forest, whereas the sanguivore of the Phyllostomidae Desmodontinae occurred at both forests.

The highly cluttered aerial insectivore was a member of the family Mormoopidae and the omnivore, carnivore, and piscivore guilds were described above for the lowlands Appendix B.

In decreasing order of species richness, the body mass ranges of g small and 10 g very small showed the highest values both in the lowland forest 20 and 17 spp.

These ranges included members of five and four guilds, respectively; each range is dominated by the 'background cluttered space aerial insectivore' and frugivore' guilds at both forests.

The range of g medium showed the highest number of guilds with six at both forests Tables , In the cloud forest the most occupied cells were g 'highly cluttered space gleaning frugivore' 12 spp.

Tables , Aerial insectivores represented most of the smallest bats 10 g in both forests. Line 8. J 20 iron tired Sulkies, from. Purl Is st Camperdown.

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The Terms are Easy. Työtä tekevän väestön lukumäärä Sulvalla oli vuonna henkeä. Koska työpaikkojen määrä kylässä kasvoi , tarkoittaa tämä että monet asukkaat käyvät töissä muualla, etupäässä Vaasassa.

Eniten työllistävä toimiala Sulvalla oli terveydenhuolto- ja sosiaalisektori kpl. Tuotantotalouden piirissä työskenteli henkeä. Näitä seurasi koulutussektori 96 henkeä , kaupan ala 92 henkeä , rakennusteollisuus 73 henkeä , peruselinkeinot 68 henkeä ja kuljetusala 59 henkeä.

Rakennussektori tarjoaa töitä monille sulvalaisille. Församlings- och föreningsliv spelar en viktig roll i byasamhället. Föreningarna stärker samhörigheten i byn och den karakteriseras ofta av ideell verksamhet och talkoanda.

Seurakunta- ja yhdistystoiminnalla on tärkeä rooli kyläyhteisössä. Sulvan yhdistykset ovat merkittäviä, koska niiden toiminta sitouttaa ja aktivoi niin nuoria kuin vanhojakin.

Yhdistykset vahvistavat kylän yhteenkuuluvuuden tunnetta, jota voitaisiin luonnehtia voittoa tavoittelemattomaksi ja talkoohenkiseksi. Hyviä esimerkkejä tästä ovat koulun viereen keskustaan rakennettu maauimala sekä urheilutuvan hiihtolatu.

Sulvalla toimii useita yhdistyksiä ja vapaa-ajan toimintaa on runsaasti. Osa yhdistyksistä toimii samalla myös tärkeinä yhteiskunnallisen vaikuttamisen väylinä.

Övriga aktörer, som har verksamhet i Solf: Muut Sulvalla sijaitsevat toimijat: Helsingbykören Korsholms 4H Korsholms vuxeninstitut Korsholms musikinstitut.

Kyselyn yhteenveto Keväällä Sulvan kylätoimikunta suoritti kyselyn sulvalaisten keskuudessa selvitääkseen millä tavoin he haluaisivat Sulvan kehittyvän tulevien vuosikymmenten aikana.

Vastauksista annettiin ruotsin ja 36 suomen kielellä. Valtaosa vastauksista tuli vuotiailta. Solfborna tycker i stort sett att inflyttningstakten är lämplig.

Sulvalaiset pitävät muuttotahtia kylään sopivana. Joissakin vastauksissa toivottiin, että Sulvalle tulevien muuttovirtojen tulisi levittäytyä kyliin.

Palveluiden toimivuutta pidettiin tärkeänä. He, jotka suhtautuvat kriittisimmin muuttovirtaan, ovat huolissaan kylän luonteen muutoksista tai vahingosta ja ilkivallasta.

Toiset esittivät huolensa ympäristön ja metsästysmaiden tilasta ja vastustavat näiden tuhoamista. Vad gäller boendeformer är det radhus och egnahemshus som byborna vill se i Solf, 74 respektive 73 av dem som svarade föredrar dessa.

Fler gruppbo-. Suurin osa vastanneista toivoi kasvun tapahtuvan keskustassa ja reuna-alueilla. Osa piti keskustaa nyt jo liian ahtaana, kun taas toiset toivoivat asukaskeskittymää nimenomaan keskustaan ja vanhojen taloryhmien alueelle.

Reuna-alueiden kasvun puolestapuhujat haluavat pitää ympäröivän alueen elävänä. Rivitalot ja omakotitalot olivat suosituimpia asumismuotoja; 74 ja 73 vastanneista kannatti näitä.

Jotkut olivat sitä mieltä että kerrostalo sopisi keskustaan, kun toiset När Solf ska utvecklas vill de flesta att en hälsostation i centrum samt serviceboende för äldre ska prioriteras.

De flesta vill att det ska byggas fler hyresbostäder för de äldre.

Föräldra-barn-träff vid Solf församlingshem. Hanssen i "Hejmdal" den 7. Reuna-alueiden kasvun puolestapuhujat haluavat pitää ympäröivän alueen elävänä.
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